Disengagement Theory And Activity Theory Pdf Free ~REPACK~
DOWNLOAD ->>> https://urluso.com/2sXEAq
The continuity theory of aging states that personality traits and coping mechanisms stay largely the same in old age as they were in earlier years. For example, an elderly person who is pessimistic about life was probably pessimistic in their youth also.
The activity theory of aging proposes that the more active and engaged a person is in old age, the happier they will be. However, the theory does not take into account that many older people are not able to remain active due to chronic illness.
There is no central theory that explains aging. Psychosocial theories focus on the mental and emotional as well as social aspects of aging. Three major psychosocial theories on aging are continuity theory, disengagement theory, and activity theory.
Gerontologist Robert J. Havighurst developed the activity theory of aging in 1961. It is based on the idea that older people who are active are more satisfied with their lives than those who are not. Havighurst originally framed the theory as a response to disengagement theory, which is described in more detail below.
The activity theory of aging proposes that older adults can continue the level of activity and social interaction that they enjoyed in middle age by replacing their former roles with new ones. For example, the role of employee can be replaced with the role of volunteer. According to activity theory, changing roles and remaining active improves self-concept and adjustment to growing older.
The chief criticism of activity theory is that not all older people can remain active. Barriers to remaining active in old age include physical and mental health issues as well as social restraints such as poverty or class. Another criticism is that some older people have no desire to engage in new roles and activities.
The continuity theory of aging is mainly attributed to the separate work of sociologists George L. Maddox in 1968 and Robert Atchley in 1971. The theory is based on the idea that as people grow older, they continue with the same personality traits and level of activity that they had in younger years.
Continuity theory distinguishes between an individual's internal and external structures. Internal structure refers to personality traits, beliefs, and ideas. External structure consists of relationships and social roles. Continuity theory states that older adults maintain their existing internal and external structures as they cope with the challenges of aging.
Research psychologists Paul and Margret Baltes developed the theory of selective optimization in 1990. It is based on the idea that older adults must compensate for physical and mental decline by choosing behaviors that best fit their ability to function. This is called selective optimization. For example, an older adult experiencing declining vision can select large-print reading material. An older person who is unable to drive can choose a form of public transportation.
Psychologist Bernice L. Neugarten developed the personality theory of age and aging in 1968. It is based on the idea that personality type is the key factor in adapting to the challenges of aging. Neugarten identified four personality types that predict the ability to cope with old age:
The activity theory occurs when individuals engage in a full day of activities and maintain a level of productivity to age successfully. The activity theory basically says: the more you do, the better you will age. It makes a certain kind of sense, too. People who remain active and engaged tend to be happier, healthier, and more in touch with what is going on around them. Same goes for people of any age.
Often, the activity theory is dismissed to some degree because it falls a little flat. It isn't sufficient to just be busy, like the definition states. You can't wake up every day and do the same thing, like riding a stationary bike, and expect to age well. This theory was taken and used by many program designers for the elderly, who filled older folks' schedules with busy work and required them to complete tasks. A heightened level of activity is needed, but it needs to be engaging and fulfilling, rather than just busy work.
The theory also fails to consider maintenance of one's mid-life or changes that are made when entering retired or older life. If I was a high-powered, high-stress executive and I retire and go into pottery making, am I going to age successfully? Not likely, particularly if I enjoyed my job as an executive. Maybe what is needed is another theory that looks at the lifespan instead of just older age.
The continuity theory states that individuals who age successfully continue habits, preferences, lifestyle, and relationships through midlife and later. Again, this theory makes a certain kind of intuitive sense. People who are doing well in midlife, who are happy, healthy, and just plain dandy should carry over the habits and ideals that made them that way. Basically, good stuff should be continued because it's good stuff!
An easy way of thinking about how the continuity theory can demonstrate successful aging is by considering your own life. For most people, middle school and high school are fairly similar despite them often being physically very different (different place, more people, different teachers, etc). However, the habits, preferences, and relationships often continued if most of your cohort moved with you. It helped make the transition easier.
The continuity theory fails to consider people who have unhealthy habits, preferences, and the like in their middle age. These people are aging poorly in their midlife and will continue to deteriorate in older age with their poor lifestyle. What I mean is that if someone lives off of fast food and TV watching (or cookies and playing around on his computer, hint hint for myself), then the continuity theory will predict aging poorly.
The last theory we will look at is the disengagement theory, defined as a gradual withdrawing from roles due to lessened capabilities and diminished concern. This was one of the first theories proposed, with the theory first being published in the early 1960s. Why I listed the date on this one was that it failed to consider the cultural shift with old age. With advancements in science and lifestyle, the average lifespan has increased by around 15 years or so. These years have also seen a rise in what older people do with their time, staying physically active and engaged in the world.
Today, the disengagement theory has been largely abandoned. However, we must still acknowledge that, for its time and place, it accurately described the advancing age for people in the 60s and before. The physical demand of jobs back then, the lower life expectancy and the difficulty in treating disabilities all led to older people taking to a life of rocking chairs and the bed because they could not engage with the world like they used to. 2b1af7f3a8